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UNESCO ── Second International Technical and Vocational E

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UNESCO ── Second International Technical and Vocational E

April 1999 26-30 May, UNESCO in Seoul, South Korea held its second session of the International Technical and Vocational Education Conference, on the theme "Lifelong learning and training ── bridge to the future." Nearly 1,000 delegates from more than 130 countries around the world participated. Meeting on the following six topics were discussed in depth: the 21st century, changing needs challenges to technical and vocational education; improve the delivery of life-long education and training systems; innovative education and training process; universal technical and vocational education; changes in government and other the role of the relevant departments in technical and vocational education; to strengthen international cooperation in technical and vocational education. During the meeting, Deputy Director-General of UNESCO Powell entitled "10 years ago by UNESCO in the 21st Century Program" report; consideration on the basis of the experts and the presentations and discussions on the principle of "technical and vocational education and training: 21st century ── caused recommendation UN Secretary-General "(hereinafter referred to as the" recommendation "); experts Vocational Education in the new century in his statement, trends and principles were elaborated.
First, the opportunities and challenges
    In the dawn of the new century, the eve of the convening of the second session of UNESCO's International Technical and Vocational Education Conference is a realistic and far-reaching significance. First International Technical and Vocational Education Conference was held in Berlin in 1987, and in the subsequent 12 years, the international situation has undergone great changes: global economic integration trends are becoming evident; science and technology and information technology the rapid development; practitioners floating population is increasing; most countries are facing enormous pressure in employment and unemployment. All this, so that the next century vocational education are facing great opportunities and serious challenges. 21st century will be an era of knowledge, information, communication, based on high-tech as the core of the knowledge-based economy dominated era. Compared with previous economic patterns, the biggest difference is that the knowledge economy, its prosperity is not directly dependent on the number, size and incremental resources, capital, technology, hardware, and directly dependent on the accumulation and use of knowledge or valid information. Comprehensive national strength and international competitiveness of the country will depend on the ability to acquire knowledge, apply knowledge and create new knowledge, which depends on personnel training in this competition. Globalization and the revolution in information and communication technologies mean that it is necessary to establish a people-centered development model.
    A change in the economic structure would involve at least the following issues: the new market economy countries appear; increased mobility of labor and capital; new rural economy and industrial economy; global economic integration. "Proposal" points out: "The social and economic trends herald a new model of development, peace-loving culture and in this mode to maintain a good environment for sustainable development is a core feature Accordingly, technical and vocational education values, attitudes. policies and practices must be based on this model is based on the characteristics of this model are: Object technical and Vocational Education education wider, greater access to education, more emphasis on human development needed to make educated effective ability to participate in the world of work. "the change of vocational education presented a huge challenge demands the vocational education reform. These changes determine a new concept of vocational education, new ideas and new trends. "Proposal" points out: "Technical and Vocational Education reform must be carried out in the following manner: increased flexibility; to cultivate innovation and efficiency skills needed; for the changing labor market, to arrange training; for the employed and the unemployed as well as disadvantaged for training and retraining. "in the past few years, various regions of the world and governments have taken advantage of every opportunity to have research to explore the region and the country's vocational education development strategy, the introduction of relevant policies. In 1998, UNESCO in preparation for the conference, has held in Australia, Greece, United Arab Emirates, Ecuador, Kenya and other places of the five regional meetings to discuss the future decisions based on technical and vocational education action plans, and to ensure the possibility of regional and international measures to provide lifelong learning and training opportunities for everyone taken for convening this conference laid the foundation.
Second, the development trend
    The great German thinker, the poet Heinrich Heine once said: "Every era has its major problem, solved it, put the human society one step further." ( "From Munich to Genoa travel in mind," 1828) second international Conference of technical and vocational education is the vocational education as a new century, promote global economic development, promoting social progress such a "major issue" to deal with, discusses the new trend of development of vocational education.
(A) the establishment of Great Vocational Education Concept
    For a long time, the concept of vocational education and content, including our national and international vocational education sector has been debated, disagree. Some countries called "Vocational and Technical Education"; others called "vocational education"; UNESCO has been using since the 1970s, "Technical and Vocational Education (TVE)" concept; ILO use the "Vocational Education and Training" Concept ; the World Bank and the Asian development Bank began using the concept of "technical and vocational education and training (TVET)" since the mid-1980s. This session of the General Assembly outset "Technical and Vocational Education" was interpreted as including the concept of "vocational training". In an official document of the General Assembly and the first use of the concept of "technical and vocational education and training".
A change in the concept reflected the new Vocational Education Thoughts:
    1. Change the traditional, vocational education and vocational training concepts narrow, including the establishment of vocational and technical education and training, including vocational education concept big UNESCO Deputy Director-General Powell in the subject raised in the report: "Technical and vocational education and training bridge to the future, however, there must be one from technical and vocational education and training as an employment-oriented way, otherwise we would be creating new problems. Thus, we need not only a reinvigorated and more coordinated technical and Vocational education and training programs, and technical and vocational education is a new situation and employment binding. we need to technical and vocational education and training linked to the new model, the education, training, employment and social welfare aspects of work in a country inside, linked in an international context. "
    2. "Technical and vocational education should be integrated into lifelong education, must more effectively with secondary, higher and adult education combined." Under the guidance of lifelong learning and training of thinking, ask the competent departments of vocational education, in particular UNESCO and the full cooperation of the ILO. In other words, vocational education, technical education and training should be part of Lifelong Education.
    3. Vocational education is attractive returns "production" industry should have a reference to our attention at the conference that when referring to financial problems, "Recommendation" stated: "The government and the private sector should technical and vocational education as an investment, rather than expenditure, there is a considerable return. this return includes a good performance of workers, improve productivity and strengthen international competitiveness. "
(Ii) the identification of vocational education as an important part of life-long education
    In the past, referring to the life-long education, people tend to focus on adult and continuing education, vocational education is only considered a special education life in a certain period accepted; or that vocational education is a type of early termination education. The theme of the International Vocational Education Conference that is located in the "Lifelong learning and training: a bridge to the future", in a letter of recommendation of the General Assembly of Member States wrote: "Technical and vocational education for everyone, all should become a mainstream educational channels, rather than previously thought, but extends from the general education system out of a huge accessory. "" the concept of lifelong education should not be limited to professional training as a channel just for someone skills in their areas of expertise based on the original purpose, but should also serve as to provide people with more career opportunities means "UNESCO Director-General in his opening remarks, Mayor said:" today, whether at the national, regional or individual level, the rich and the knowledge poor knowledge gaps are increasing. Therefore, providing lifelong education and training is our only way to be able to use the necessary knowledge and ability of the armed people, enabling them to changing world . survival "Deputy Director general Powell in his speech also talk about:" the technical and vocational education and training must be started at the stage of general education, so that children understand the range of useful life skills and experience is particularly important that technology and. Vocational education and training must be implemented flexibly, so that all social groups and all age groups of people have access to education and training; in other words, we need to provide lifelong learning opportunities for all and realization of technical and vocational education. Cohesion between other types of education, to emphasize the recognition of prior learning and work experience, improve technical and vocational education and training position in the education system. "to achieve the goal of lifelong education, vocational education in the future development of the General Assembly at least made the following questions:
    1. Types of education and vocational education should establish a general education, adult education, higher education a mutual convergence, mutual communication and mutual complementary relationship.
    This relationship is not just the education system on the convergence of communication, more important is the interface between the various types of education in the overall quality of people's culture. Accordance with the idea of ​​lifelong education, vocational education not only to impart professional knowledge, skills and engage in certain occupations have a special attitude, behavior and characteristics; and to continue the development of all in basic education has been formed, socially recognized personality feature. At the same time, professional training for basic education've learned the continuation and deepening. As basic education high school physics, chemistry, language knowledge to, in vocational education to further understand its application in the production process; safety and environmental awareness in the students mind is often an abstract concept in vocational education is is concrete, it must comply with the requirements, and so on. Vocational education also taught knowledge, skills, attitudes should be for students to continue their studies and career change jobs and lay a good foundation. In short, the process is continuing vocational education and special education teaching general education and continuing education for the foundation closely linked to the overall educational process. Vocational education is not isolated, with other stages of education unrelated to education, not based on the same premise-time and lifelong education selected occupations.
    2. Vocational education should be flexible in order to examine the ideology of lifelong education in vocational education, the school requires its form should be flexible, long-term vocational education, there are short-term, in-service vocational training. Teaching location should also be varied, classrooms, laboratories, practice workshops in schools, but also schools and training centers outside the workplace. These forms and the environment complement each other and promote each other, the effect of vocational education can obtain optimal. Powell When it comes to an integral part of technical and vocational education as a lifelong educational sermon: "To facilitate the coordination of formal education and non-formal education, is responsible for promoting education, training, ministries of labor and social welfare of coordination between the "," in order to provide access to employment and vocational education and technical training to improve contacts and cooperation in technical and vocational education and training and employment. "
    3. Vocational education should carry out educational reform
    Lifelong education requires not only build a new vocational education system, and more importantly, to reform education. The Assembly stressed Vocational Education:. "In the process of teaching and learning technology and vocational education and training, it should be the introduction of new information and communication technologies, taking care not to abandon traditional teaching methods valuable part" in the ability of students when "emphasize the development of entrepreneurship ability, creativity, collective cooperation and exchange." at the meeting we also stressed that discussions should strengthen environmental education, foreign language teaching, social and cultural teaching in vocational education. Facing the challenges of the 21st century, developing entrepreneurial ability should be an important part of the reform of education and training, whether this ability is important for wage employment or self-employment, should be cultured by the general education and vocational education. Entrepreneurship education is related to the profound changes in the ideological education of vocational education is to improve the overall quality of youth training model. Proposes entrepreneurship education is also based on recent global unemployment problem is getting serious consideration, through entrepreneurship education, people can be founded more small businesses, self-management, so as to provide more employment opportunities for the community, the problem of unemployment is ameliorating one a good way. Implement entrepreneurship education should be combined with vocational guidance and career guidance; combined with community economic development; combined with teaching. During the discussion, representatives of many countries are considered, including the culture of entrepreneurship, including such as: dealing with people, ability to work in cooperation, self-regulation, creativity, responsibility, problem analysis, problem solving ability is to cultivate talent for the New Century "critical capability."
    4. Teaching Staff Training and further strengthen the training of scientific and technical progress, changes in the organization of labor, industrial restructuring and international competition is becoming increasingly fierce, forcing companies to personal qualities and professional competence of vocational school graduates made more stringent hiring standards, and thus the occupation education quality, teacher quality put forward higher requirements. Era of knowledge economy, knowledge of growing and aging rapidly, frequent product changes and new emerging profession, occupation gradually reduced so that the disappearance of old, this situation also put forward new requirements for teachers. "Recommendation" that:. "After the need for technical and vocational education reform proposal, the teacher's role is the main problem there must be a new approach to train new teachers and to continuously improve their capabilities and their professional standards for teachers in the 21st century. eligibility requirements, the need for a rethinking, including the best balance between study and field workplace campus. requires a new assessment, evaluation, convergence criteria and qualifications. "
(C) The Government's new role and other equity in vocational education
    Due to different historical, social, economic and cultural development context of each country, which is also different models of vocational education, vocational education as the Government's role is different. However, with changes in the global economy, with the continuous development of science and technology, with the implementation of the changing labor market and lifelong vocational education providers and the interests of those vocational education must redefine its position in vocational education. UNESCO calls on governments and other interests should transform its functions and role in vocational education, and topics discussed the issue at the conference, aims to enable vocational education in all countries can adapt to the needs of the 21st century and development. Governments should continue to bear the primary responsibility in addition to outside technical and vocational education (This responsibility includes policy development, financing, coordination, development of standards, etc.), but also requires that all interests are vocational education is not only to do their own past "permission "things in the range, but also concerned about the vocational education of all macro and micro issues. Between the Government and other equity by a division of labor, cooperative and mutually supportive relationship, who can not missing anyone. "Recommendations", he said: "Policymakers and school technical and vocational education must be established by the government, industry and social sectors three new partnerships to implement this partnership must be able to build a harmonious legal framework. forming a national development strategy in this strategy, the government in addition to the actual running of technical and vocational education, can play a role in the following areas: leadership and indicate the direction; to facilitate and coordinate the schools; the establishment of quality assurance system, and propose and. confirm community service obligations to ensure that technical and vocational education can be for all people. "" the government would also take responsibility for ensuring the implementation of training before a strong level, whether public or private. "in addition, the internal governments often by different agencies in charge of vocational education, and their duties are often cross or repeated, resulting in many unnecessary conflicts. To this end, "Proposal" points out: "In order to coordinate the national technical and vocational education, so that public and private schools can collaborate effectively, and to all parties involved in the technical and vocational education will benefit as fully as possible the need for Governments coordination and rectify their own offices. "
    In the "Recommendation" that the role of non-governmental organizations in vocational education should be given adequate attention, "should recognize and support non-governmental organizations in the implementation of technical and vocational education in the role, they often provide very valuable, yet is often overlooked resource contribution. "here we highlight the enterprises, especially the need for private sector participation in vocational education, because most companies understand the economic developments and trends in the industry and can provide the most effective internships and training places, It allows participants in the learning process will be able to understand and grasp the dynamic enterprise and personal experience the importance of production safety, environmental awareness and responsibility and so on.
    When it comes to vocational education funds of the General Assembly stressed: organization of technical and vocational education will benefit all parties, is an effective and "rewarding investment." "Thus, funds technical and vocational education should be to maximize between government, business, community and student assessment." Funding for vocational education is no longer from one channel, and should the parties raise funds. Of course, each country should be based on its own national conditions provision of vocational education financing approach.
(Iv) Vocational Education and Sustainable Development
    In his speech, Powell said:. "The world is moving to the information-based economic transformation, in this economy, a business or a country benefit is the quality of the products and services offered by it determined the new technology based production systems with higher productivity and flexibility, requiring all employees constantly update and improve their skills and, more entrepreneurial and enterprising spirit. the available evidence clearly shows that the most productive countries have a common characteristics, namely their well-trained and flexible labor force, has a wealth of skills, different mix of skills very well, and requires that employees constantly improve their skills for life, "he stressed:." technical and vocational education and training programs is not only by 'demand-driven', it should be by the 'development needs drivers' well-trained, skilled labor to master any country that wants to achieve sustainable development are essential. "Therefore, UNESCO calls on countries : to ensure that technical and vocational education and training become a national development agenda as an integral part of the national education and human resource development strategy is important and indispensable component.
    Vocational education for sustainable development must meet the needs of the labor market, to develop demand-driven development of vocational education. Requirements set according to social and economic development needs of professional, to determine the content of teaching and the ability to market changes, timely adjust and set up a new professional teaching content. "The development of needs-driven" educational institutions of vocational education in the future can not be re-emphasize what I can do, I can cultivate what kind of people; and to emphasize the need for what I do, I need to cultivate the kind of person. This "need" from the community, from enterprises and institutions, but also from individuals.
(V) technical and vocational education of the people
    This General Assembly to carry out national technical and vocational education is further concrete implementation of the March 1990 World Conference on Education for All. Its specific meaning include: (1) to ensure that girls and women have the same opportunities as men to accept technical and vocational education; (2) efforts to make these personnel have access to formal and non-formal technical and vocational education and training programs: Unemployment and various disadvantaged groups, including early school leavers, the disabled, the rural poor as well as the end of the armed conflict, displaced persons and demobilized soldiers. To this end, technical and vocational education programs should be flexible, and to vocational counseling and career guidance, so that all people can according to their need of technical and vocational education or training. "Recommendation" that read: "commitment to provide technical and vocational education for all, requires the development of appropriate policies and strategies to increase the allocation of resources, flexible manner suitable for training, training to create a warm and friendly environment, and requires teachers and employers they should be considerate and caring, "the UNESCO proposed to carry out national technical and vocational education have the following significance: (1) can strengthen social cohesion, thereby contributing to national social and economic development; (2) so that all in varying degrees, access to survival and ability to create wealth for the community; (3) to reduce unemployment and ensure social stability.
    Here clearly vocational education to vocational counseling and guidance. Indeed, many countries have set up in the general secondary schools and vocational schools, career guidance curriculum; in the community to establish a career and employment counseling centers, and accumulated a lot of good experience. The face of competition in the 21st century international markets, national labor markets will be subject to varying degrees of impact on the students to regulate vocational guidance as soon as possible, so that they understand the business school will be able to understand the job market, grasp employment information; can grasp knowledge and skills of some of the job; and the formation of a good work ethic, in order to adapt to the market economy on employment requirements. This will not only further improve the function of vocational education, while the personality development of students will play a positive role in promoting.
(Vi) the development of vocational education in strengthening international cooperation in the economic globalization also called for strengthening multilateral international cooperation, especially cooperation in the field of education. The International Conference of Vocational Education will "strengthen the technical and vocational education of international cooperation" as a specific topic at the meeting were discussed to illustrate the importance of strengthening cooperation in vocational education to promote global economic integration internationally. Congress emphasized the cooperation in the following areas:
    1. Cooperation among international organizations to strengthen further cooperation between UNESCO and other international bodies such as the International Labour Organization, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the World Bank, between a particular emphasis on cooperation with the ILO. This shows that the implementation of lifelong vocational education with the need for cooperation between the competent personnel department, so that interrelated and complement each other in terms of policy formulation, implementation and other vocational education.
    2. Establishment of the International Research Center for Technical and Vocational Education in 1992 UNESCO established the "International Technical and Vocational Education Project", currently a total of 198 established a network point (Institute of Vocational Education Ministry of China Education Center is a network point) and regional center. In recent years regional centers and network points for a lot of work on the international exchanges and cooperation has played a positive role in promoting. "Recommendation" that: "Regional and national centers of international technical and vocational education programs is to achieve technical and professional education development in the 21st century an indispensable tool, should encourage Member States to continue to support UNESCO's work center." To the project turned into a long-term project, the German government committed, willing to pay up a "research center of international technical and vocational education" in Bonn, Germany, the matter will be submitted to the next UNESCO General Conference discussed and adopted.
    3. Calls for increased funding for the General Assembly strongly called upon UNESCO cooperation should significantly increase its budgetary allocations to technical and vocational education programs, and recommended the establishment of Technical and Vocational Education Innovation International Award to encourage the revitalization of technical and vocational education in the new century.
    4. In terms of innovative technical and vocational education system, to continue to strengthen North-South cooperation and South-South cooperation.
    Open meeting was very successful, I believe that after the various countries will take full account of these recommendations, according to their national conditions, to develop a national vocational education development strategy for the next century, global economic development and make contributions.

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